2017年10月18日 星期三

滿文字典中沒有的字:si’tiyeriliyetiye






Laqcaxa jecen-de taqôraxa babe ejehe bithe(《異域錄》)中,Tulišen提到位於伏爾加河與卡贊卡河交匯處的喀山城。他在那兒見到一種名為si’tiyeriliyetiye的魚(九耐堂本,下卷,頁9 b.5,今西, 頁55)。Tulišen不知道其為何物,故在漢文本中將之音譯作「四帖里烈帖魚」。

我想所謂的「四帖里烈帖魚」即在伏爾加河中棲息的cте́рлядь(鱘魚)。日本學人今西春秋在《校注異域錄》中將之音譯做スチェルリャード(今西, 頁128),沒有另作解釋,スチェルリャード實即英文的sterlet,亦即漢文的鱘魚。



(中正大學滿洲研究班甘德星)


2017年10月17日 星期二

滿洲史言學刊 第2號


滿洲史言學刊

 2 





哈佛大學內陸歐亞研究的黃金年代專號

1. Richard Frye
2. Omeljan Pritsak
3. Francis Cleaves 
4. Joesph Fletcher







台灣   嘉義
國立中正大學
滿洲史言中心
2017.10

 

2017年10月16日 星期一

Richard Frye (1920-2014)




Memorial Minute


At a Meeting of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences on February 2, 2016, the following Minute was placed upon the records. RICHARD NELSON FRYE Born: January 10, 1920 Died: March 27, 2014 Born in Birmingham, Alabama, to Swedish parents, Richard Nelson Frye was raised in Danville, Illinois. As a freshman in high school, on the way to his after-school job as ticket seller in his father’s movie theater, twelve-year-old Richard spotted a book in the window of the town’s only bookstore: Harold Lamb’s Tamerlane, the Earth Shaker, which, as he put it, consumed him to the extent that he decided the study of Central Asia would be his life’s goal. He went on to study Oriental history at the University of Illinois at Urbana in 1935, serving in the ROTC and studying Arabic language at a summer school at Princeton University in 1938. Upon finishing his undergraduate degree summa cum laude in 1939, he began his graduate studies at the Department of History at Harvard, where for two years he studied Chinese language, history, and archeology. In the fall of 1941, as a naval officer, he was persuaded to learn Japanese but then was called to Washington, D.C., to join the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), manning the “Afghan desk” as part of a team of Near East specialists. After intensive training in cryptanalysis, he was assigned to Afghanistan, where he went carrying with him his Ph.D. thesis, a translation of Narshakhi’s History of Bukhara. Once in Kabul, he was allotted the teaching of mathematics at Habibiya College (1942–44) since Daniel Ingalls, future Wales Professor of Sanskrit at Harvard, with whom he had traveled, had arrived before him and had preempted all the English classes. Frye traveled extensively in the Middle East, Central Asia, and South Asia, amassing the intimate knowledge of this region that he would draw upon later in his career. Frye left the OSS in 1945, returning to Harvard, where he was admitted as a Junior Fellow in the Society of Fellows in the spring of 1946. That fall he received his Ph.D. in the field of Oriental history. His advisor, Robert Blake, then “put him to work” on classical Armenian. Together they also translated the medieval Arabic account of Ibn Fadlan’s travels up the Volga, on which Frye’s student, the novelist Michael Crichton, based his book Eaters of the Dead, which subsequently became the 1999 film The 13th Warrior. When he found he was unable to study Iran and Central Asia intensively at Harvard, Frye began studying old Iranian languages with the great Iranist Walter B. Henning at the University of London, having obtained permission from the Society of Fellows to be away from Cambridge “because of the disruptions caused by the war.” Returning to Cambridge, he taught an anthropological survey of the Near East and continued his studies in classical Armenian, making contacts in the Armenian community, which led to his co-founding of the National Association of Armenian Studies and Research. Thanks to his advocacy, Armenians have established Armenian scholarly studies throughout the United States, beginning with a named chair at Harvard’s Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations. Frye conducted his first research trip to Iran in 1948. In his third year as a Junior Fellow, he received several job offers, including ones from the Universities of Pennsylvania and of Michigan. With these as leverage, he secured a joint appointment at Harvard as Assistant Professor of Middle Eastern Studies and of General Education. In 1952 Frye accepted a request from the Metropolitan Museum of Art to catalogue the Persian manuscripts in the collection of Hagop Kevorkian, with whom he became friendly and whom he persuaded to endow a chair in Iranian studies at Columbia University. Frye taught at Columbia for one year but then decided to return to Harvard, where he was promoted to associate professor in 1954. The Center for Middle Eastern Studies at Harvard was founded that year, and Frye managed daily operations there. His students over the following years included the Aga Khan’s grandsons Karim and Amin and their uncle Sadruddin, whom Frye consulted on the possibility of establishing a chair in Iranian studies at Harvard. Sadruddin told him to write to his father, who wrote back, “Where should I send the money?” The Aga Khan chair of Iranian was duly established in 1957 with Frye as the first incumbent, a post he held until 1990. During his long Harvard career, Frye served as visiting professor or scholar at the Universities of Frankfurt (1959–60), Hamburg (1968–69), Shiraz (1970–76), and Tajikistan (1990–92) and was Director of the Asia Institute in Shiraz from 1970 to 1975. At Harvard, Frye taught entry-level courses on Iran and Zoroastrianism that served undergraduates and graduate students in fields related to these subjects. Many of his graduate students have continued in academia and made signal contributions to Iranian and Central Asian history. In 1972, he co-founded the Harvard Committee on Inner Asian and Altaic Studies, which he chaired from 1983 to 1989 and which has produced doctoral students in fields reaching geographically from Mongolia, Xinjiang, and Tibet to modern Eastern Europe. Among his numerous publications are The History of Ancient Iran (1984), a comprehensive history of greater Iran, including Afghanistan and Central Asia, and three other valuable historical surveys: The Heritage of Persia (1963), The Golden Age of Persia (1975), and The Heritage of Central Asia (1996). His fascinating autobiography, Greater Iran: A 20th-Century Odyssey, appeared in 2005. Many of his books have been published in several major languages, including Russian and Persian. From his fifty years at Harvard and forty-one years on its faculty, Frye left his colleagues with an indelible memory of a unique personality. He cared deeply for his students and possessed vast knowledge that he was always ready to share with colleagues here and elsewhere. He was renowned wherever he went for both his good humor and his outspoken opinions. Richard Nelson Frye died on March 27, 2014. He is survived by two of his three children from his first marriage and a son, Nels Mishael, with his second wife, Eden Naby.


Respectfully submitted,
William A. Graham, Jr.
Carl C. Lamberg-Karlovsky
Roy P. Mottahedeh
Gregory Nagy
Prods Oktor Skjærvø, Chair



Professor Richard N. Frye, Aga Khan Professor of Iranian Studies Emeritus


2017年10月14日 星期六

Omeljan Pritsak (1919-2006)






Memorial Minute
May 14, 2009

At a Meeting of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences May 5, 2009, the following Minute was placed upon the records.
Omeljan Pritsak was a man of seemingly inexhaustible energy, broad erudition, and total dedication to scholarship in a broad range of fields. While he will probably be best remembered at Harvard and in the Ukrainian diaspora community as the co-founder and long-time director of Harvard’s Ukrainian Research Institute, his energy, erudition, and scholarship also found expression in a prodigious output of scholarly work and in institution-building in several countries and many scholarly fields. He was founder, editor, or an early stalwart of a number of periodical and monographic series—first in Germany, then in this country, and, ultimately, in his native Ukraine. His prodigious range and productivity is only partially captured by the published bibliographies of his works.
Pritsak was born on 7 April 1919 in Luka, in the Sambir region of Ukraine, and completed his secondary education at the Polish “First Gymnasium” of Ternopil’, where for some years he was the only Ukrainian student. His higher education, with a concentration in Ukrainian and, increasingly over time, Turkic history and philology, took place at the University of L’viv, at the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine in Kyiv, and, after World War II (during which he became first a Red Army soldier, then a prisoner of war, then an Ost-Arbeiter), at the Universities of Berlin and Göttingen, the latter of which awarded him a doctorate in 1948.
Pritsak was invited to visit Harvard University for the academic year 1960–61 and returned to Harvard as Professor of Linguistics and Turcology in 1964. He retired in 1989.
By the time of his arrival in Cambridge, Pritsak had already become an internationally recognized specialist in historical and comparative Turkic and Altaic linguistics and a leading authority on the history and cultures of the Eurasian steppe. He was the first scholar to solve problems of succession in Turkic tribal royalty, especially in the first Turkic Islamic dynasty of the Karakhanids. At Harvard, he turned increasingly to the analysis of the Ukrainian past in its larger context, drawing on his training in the relevant oriental languages to flesh out that history with material previously underrepresented or unknown.
In 1967 Pritsak proposed the creation of a firm foundation for the development of Ukrainian studies at Harvard through the establishment of three endowed chairs (history, literature, and philology) and a research institute. This project was accomplished thanks to the efforts of the Ukrainian Studies Fund, which raised the necessary funds within the North-American Ukrainian diaspora community. The Ukrainian Research Institute was founded in 1973 and Pritsak became its first director. In 1975 he was named to the new Hrushevs’kyi Chair in Ukrainian history.
In most of his work, Pritsak was very much a structuralist. Therein lay the basis of his close collaboration with Roman Jakobson (1896–1982), especially in the International Journal of Slavic Linguistics and Poetics (The Hague: Mouton), which Jakobson edited in the mid-1960s. Pritsak also took a very pronounced structuralist view of genealogy and chronology—although his interest in these fields may have originated with some adolescent discoveries about his own birth and parentage.
He could overreach himself, as specialist reviewers of his The Origins of Rus’ (Harvard 1981) have been quick to point out. He was impatient with critics, spending very little energy in engaging with their views. He insisted that the cultural history of the East Slavs (and for him political institutions were a part of cultural history) must be viewed in the broadest Eurasian terms, taking fully into account the experiences of Scandinavian, Turkic, Baltic, and other Slavic peoples and sources in their languages.
The great majority of those who challenge Pritsak’s conclusions on the origins of Rus’ themselves view history in primarily “national” categories, but—despite his dedication to Ukrainian history—he explicitly did not. It is true, however, that when asked by one of those signed below why his projected book on the Origins of Rus’ would be in six volumes, he is said to have replied, “Because Ochmanski’s ‘Origins of Poland’ is in three.”
In one of his last general articles on the subject, he was particularly direct: “The history of Ukraine is not the history of the Ukrainian ethnic mass (ethnicity is not a historical subject) but the objective view, measured in linear time, of all types of states and communities which existed on the present territory of Ukraine in the past.”
Nor was he a “Normanist,” as is sometimes alleged. While his inaugural lecture in the Hrushevs’kyi Chair began with the story of the uproar caused by Gerhard Friedrich Müller’s 1749 lecture, “Origines gentis et nominus Russorum,” and his later work stressed the role of Scandinavians (among others) in the founding of “Kyivan Rus’,” he steadfastly insisted that the entity that emerged in the eighth and ninth centuries was multi-ethnic and multicultural at its core.
After retirement, Pritsak became more involved in the post-Soviet struggle for the revival of academic historical studies in Ukraine, spending increasing amounts of his time there (despite a serious cardiac condition that had led to surgery as early as 1977). He became the first elected foreign member of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, and revived the Institute of Oriental Studies in Kyiv, introducing new university-level programs in that field and many other neglected areas of historical scholarship. Sadly, however, even a man of his astuteness and dynamism was unable to escape the tangled webs of post-Soviet academic politics and intrigue: these years were filled with disappointments.
By that time, however, Pritsak’s major work had been accomplished. It has transformed our understanding of East Slavic history. Never again will any serious historian of the region be able to treat the history of this space as anything but the history of—in his words—a “multiethnic and multilingual” society.
Omeljan Pritsak is survived by his wife Larysa Hvozdik Pritsak; by his daughter, Irene Pritsak (by his late first wife, Nina née Nikolaevna Moldenhauer); and by two grandchildren, Lailina Eberhard and Michael Wissoff.
Respectfully submitted,
Michael S. Flier
Richard N. Frye
George G. Grabowicz
Roman Szporluk
Edward L. Keenan, Chair


2017年10月10日 星期二

Joseph Fletcher (1934-1984)




Memorial Minute
From the Library of  Prof. Tak-sing Kam)




Joseph Fletcher (1934-1984) exerted a tremendous influence on the development of the fields of Chinese and Central Asian history, the scale of which is all the more noteworthy for the brevity of his academic career. Endowed with a remarkable aptitude for foreign languages, wide-ranging interests, and a passion for teaching, Fletcher spent nearly the entirety of his academic career at Harvard. He earned his A.B. from Harvard in 1957, was a Junior Fellow in the Society of Fellows from 1962 to 1966, and received his Ph.D. from the Department of Far Eastern Languages in 1965. He then joined the faculty of Far Eastern Languages as an assistant professor in 1966 and was promoted to Professor of Chinese and Central Asian History in 1972. He remained in this position until his untimely death, from cancer, on June 14, 1984.

Fletcher’s studies of Central Asia and the Inner Asian frontiers of China were enabled and augmented by his linguistic talents. In addition to the languages of Western Europe, he also read Arabic, Chinese, Russian, Japanese, Mongolian, and Manchu. He brought all of these languages to bear on his scholarship, which covered a wide range of subjects stretching from the forested coastlines of Manchuria to the mosques of the Middle East. His dissertation, completed under the tutelage of his mentor Francis Cleaves, was a close textual study of the seventeenth century Mongolian chronicle known as the Erdeni-yin Erike. He worked extensively on problems related to the history of the Qing Empire, and was among the first to argue forcefully for the integration of Manchu sources into the historiography of China’s final dynasty. His contributions to the Cambridge History of China were widely acclaimed for demonstrating the importance of the Inner Asian frontier to the governing consciousness of the Qing rulers, and thereby balancing the earlier tendency to focus on coastal interactions with the West as the primary window through which to understand Qing foreign relations. In his later years he turned to the subject of Islam in China, working particularly on the connections between eighteenth century Chinese Islam and widely Islamic currents in Central Asia. Although he never finished a book, he published dozens of articles and prepared many more manuscripts that remained unpublished at the time of his death. Some of these were subsequently edited and released by his former colleagues and students.

A dedicated teacher, Fletcher taught Manchu and Mongolian, graduate seminars in Inner Asian history, and a popular general education course for undergraduates on the history of Mongol Empire. Despite being diagnosed with terminal cancer, he continued to teach through the final year of his life, and passed away less than a month after submitting grades for the spring semester. In 1983, he was awarded the Levinson Teaching Prize, an annual award given to the best teacher of undergraduates at Harvard University.


(EALC, Harvard)




                                                 (中正大學滿洲研究班甘德星提供)